Dr. Usman Ghafoor accomplished his bachelor’s degree from Air University, Islamabad, Pakistan, in the year 2007. He completed a master’s degree in industrial engineering from the University of Engineering and Technology, Taxila, Pakistan as a part-time student in 2016. Apart from academic activities in the Institute of Space Technology (IST), Islamabad, Pakistan, he was involved in establishing various labs of mechanical engineering and served as an academic coordinator. He received his Ph.D. degree from the School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, South Korea, in August 2021. His research interests include control systems, neuromodulation using acupuncture and electrical stimulation, fNIRS-based brain imaging, and brain-computer interfaces. Presently, he is working as Assistant Professor and head dynamics & controls research group of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, IST, Islamabad.